Effects of Salinity, Temperature, and Polyethylene Glycol on the Seed Germination of Sunflower, Helianthus annuus L
Salinization has severe influences on agriculture in the whole world. The main aims of this work were to evaluate osmotic effect and ion effect of NaCl on seed germination of three sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivars interacting with three alternating temperature regimes and to select the most salt tolerant cultivars to plant in the saline region. Seeds were germinated in the isotonic NaCl and polyethylene glycol (PEG) solutions of −0.45, −0.90, −1.34, −1.79, and −2.24MPa at 10 : 20, 15 : 25, and 20 : 30∘C temperature regimes. Both NaCl and PEG inhibited germination, but the effects of NaCl were less as compared to that of PEG, which means that adverse effects of PEG on germination were due to osmotic effect rather than specific ion accumulation. For the three cultivars, higher germination occurred at 10 : 20∘C inNaCl treatments and at 20 : 30∘C in the isotonic PEG treatments. Among the three cultivars, Sandaomei (SDM) is the most tolerant to salt and PEG stress.
اثرات شوری، دما و پلی اتیلن گلیکول بر روی جوانه زنی بذر گیاه آفتابگردان